Accounting Standard – AS 25
Interim Financial Reporting
The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the minimum content of an interim financial report and to prescribe the principles for recognition and measurement in a complete or condensed financial statements for an interim period. Timely and reliable interim financial reporting improves the ability of investors, creditors, and others to understand an enterprise’s capacity to generate earnings and cash flows, its financial condition and liquidity.
1. This Standard does not mandate which enterprises should be required to present interim financial reports, how frequently, or how soon after the end of an interim period. If an enterprise is required or elects to prepare and present an interim financial report, it should comply with this Standard.
2. A statute governing an enterprise or a regulator may require an enterprise to prepare and present certain information at an interim date which may be different in form and/or content as required by this Standard. In such a case, the recognition and measurement principles as laid down in this Standard are applied in respect of such information, unless otherwise specified in the statute or by the regulator.
3. The requirements related to cash flow statement, complete or condensed, contained in this Standard are applicable where an enterprise prepares and presents a cash flow statement for the purpose of its annual financial report.
4. The following terms are used in this Standard with the meanings specified:
4.1 Interim period is a financial reporting period shorter than a full financial year.
4.2 Interim financial report means a financial report containing either a complete set of financial statements or a set of condensed financial statements (as described in this Standard) for an interim period.
5. During the first year of operations of an enterprise, its annual financial reporting period may be shorter than a financial year. In such a case, that shorter period is not considered as an interim period.
Content of an Interim Financial Report
6. A complete set of financial statements normally includes:
(a) balance sheet;
(b) statement of profit and loss;
(c) cash flow statement; and
(d) notes including those relating to accounting policies and other statements and explanatory material that are an integral part of the financial statements.
7. In the interest of timeliness and cost considerations and to avoid repetition of information previously reported, an enterprise may be required to or may elect to present less information at interim dates as compared with its annual financial statements. The benefit of timeliness of presentation may be partially offset by a reduction in detail in the information provided. Therefore, this Standard requires preparation and presentation of an interim financial report containing, as a minimum, a set of condensed financial statements. The interim financial report containing condensed financial statements is intended to provide an update on the latest annual financial statements. Accordingly, it focuses on new activities, events, and circumstances and does not duplicate information previously reported.
8. This Standard does not prohibit or discourage an enterprise from presenting a complete set of financial statements in its interim financial report, rather than a set of condensed financial statements. This Standard also does not prohibit or discourage an enterprise from including, in condensed interim financial statements, more than the minimum line items or selected explanatory notes as set out in this Standard. The recognition and measurement principles set out in this Standard apply also to complete financial statements for an interim period, and such statements would include all disclosures required by this Standard (particularly the selected disclosures in paragraph 16) as well as those required by other Accounting Standards.
Minimum Components of an Interim Financial Report
9. An interim financial report should include, at a minimum, the following components:
(a) condensed balance sheet;
(b) condensed statement of profit and loss;
(c) condensed cash flow statement; and
(d) selected explanatory notes.
Form and Content of Interim Financial Statements
10. If an enterprise prepares and presents a complete set of financial statements in its interim financial report, the form and content of those statements should conform to the requirements as applicable to annual complete set of financial statements.
11. If an enterprise prepares and presents a set of condensed financial statements in its interim financial report, those condensed statements should include, at a minimum, each of the headings and sub-headings that were included in its most recent annual financial statements and the selected explanatory notes as required by this Standard. Additional line items or notes should be included if their omission would make the condensed interim financial statements misleading.
12. If an enterprise presents basic and diluted earnings per share in its annual financial statements in accordance with Accounting Standard (AS) 20, Earnings Per Share, basic and diluted earnings per share should be presented in accordance with AS 20 on the face of the statement of profit and loss, complete or condensed, for an interim period.
13. If an enterprise’s annual financial report included the consolidated financial statements in addition to the parent’s separate financial statements, the interim financial report includes both the consolidated financial statements and separate financial statements, complete or condensed.
14. Illustration I attached to the Standard provides illustrative format of condensed financial statements.
Selected Explanatory Notes
15. A user of an enterprise’s interim financial report will ordinarily have access to the most recent annual financial report of that enterprise. It is, therefore, not necessary for the notes to an interim financial report to provide relatively insignificant updates to the information that was already reported in the notes in the most recent annual financial report. At an interim date, an explanation of events and transactions that are significant to an understanding of the changes in financial position and performance of the enterprise since the last annual reporting date is more useful.
16. An enterprise should include the following information, as a minimum, in the notes to its interim financial statements, if material and if not disclosed elsewhere in the interim financial report:
(a) a statement that the same accounting policies are followed in the interim financial statements as those followed in the most recent annual financial statements or, if those policies have been changed, a description of the nature and effect of the change;
(b) explanatory comments about the seasonality of interim operations;
(c) the nature and amount of items affecting assets, liabilities, equity, net income, or cash flows that are unusual because of their nature, size, or incidence (see paragraphs 12 to 14 of Accounting Standard (AS) 5, Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies);
(d) the nature and amount of changes in estimates of amounts reported in prior interim periods of the current financial year or changes in estimates of amounts reported in prior financial years, if those changes have a material effect in the current interim period;
(e) issuances, buy-backs, repayments and restructuring of debt, equity and potential equity shares;
(f) dividends, aggregate or per share (in absolute or percentage terms), separately for equity shares and other shares;
(g) segment revenue, segment capital employed (segment assets minus segment liabilities) and segment result for business segments or geographical segments, whichever is the enterprise’s primary basis of segment reporting (disclosure of segment information is required in an enterprise’s interim financial report only if the enterprise is required, in terms of AS 17, Segment Reporting, to disclose segment information in its annual financial statements);
(h) material events subsequent to the end of the interim period that have not been reflected in the financial statements for the interim period;
(i) the effect of changes in the composition of the enterprise during the interim period, such as amalgamations, acquisition or disposal of subsidiaries and long-term investments, restructurings, and discontinuing operations; and
(j) material changes in contingent liabilities since the last annual balance sheet date.
The above information should normally be reported on a financial year- to-date basis. However, the enterprise should also disclose any events or transactions that are material to an understanding of the current interim period.
17. Other Accounting Standards specify disclosures that should be made in financial statements. In that context, financial statements mean complete set of financial statements normally included in an annual financial report and sometimes included in other reports. The disclosures required by those other Accounting Standards are not required if an enterprise’s interim financial report includes only condensed financial statements and selected explanatory notes rather than a complete set of financial statements.
Periods for which Interim Financial Statements are required to be presented
18. Interim reports should include interim financial statements (condensed or complete) for periods as follows:
(a) balance sheet as of the end of the current interim period and a comparative balance sheet as of the end of the immediately preceding financial year;
(b) statements of profit and loss for the current interim period and cumulatively for the current financial year to date, with comparative statements of profit and loss for the comparable interim periods (current and year-to-date) of the immediately preceding financial year;
(c) cash flow statement cumulatively for the current financial year to date, with a comparative statement for the comparable year- to-date period of the immediately preceding financial year.
19. For an enterprise whose business is highly seasonal, financial information for the twelve months ending on the interim reporting date and comparative information for the prior twelve-month period may be useful. Accordingly, enterprises whose business is highly seasonal are encouraged to consider reporting such information in addition to the information called for in the preceding paragraph.
20. Illustration 2 attached to the Standard illustrates the periods required to be presented by an enterprise that reports half-yearly and an enterprise that reports quarterly.
21. In deciding how to recognise, measure, classify, or disclose an item for interim financial reporting purposes, materiality should be assessed in relation to the interim period financial data. In making assessments of materiality, it should be recognised that interim measurements may rely on estimates to a greater extent than measurements of annual financial data.
22. The Preface to the Statements of Accounting Standards states that “The Accounting Standards are intended to apply only to items which are material”. The Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements, issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, states that “information is material if its misstatement (i.e., omission or erroneous statement) could influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial information”.
23. Judgement is always required in assessing materiality for financial reporting purposes. For reasons of understandability of the interim figures, materiality for making recognition and disclosure decision is assessed in relation to the interim period financial data. Thus, for example, unusual or extraordinary items, changes in accounting policies or estimates, and prior period items are recognised and disclosed based on materiality in relation to interim period data. The overriding objective is to ensure that an interim financial report includes all information that is relevant to understanding an enterprise’s financial position and performance during the interim period.
Disclosure in Annual Financial Statements
24. An enterprise may not prepare and present a separate financial report for the final interim period because the annual financial statements are presented. In such a case, paragraph 25 requires certain disclosures to be made in the annual financial statements for that financial year.
25. If an estimate of an amount reported in an interim period is changed significantly during the final interim period of the financial year but a separate financial report is not prepared and presented for that final interim period, the nature and amount of that change in estimate should be disclosed in a note to the annual financial statements for that financial year.
26. Accounting Standard (AS) 5, Net Profit or Loss for the Period, Prior Period Items and Changes in Accounting Policies, requires disclosure, in financial statements, of the nature and (if practicable) the amount of a change in an accounting estimate which has a material effect in the current period, or which is expected to have a material effect in subsequent periods. Paragraph 16(d) of this Standard requires similar disclosure in an interim financial report. Examples include changes in estimate in the final interim period relating to inventory write-downs, restructurings, or impairment losses that were reported in an earlier interim period of the financial year. The disclosure required by the preceding paragraph is consistent with AS 5 requirements and is intended to be restricted in scope so as to relate only to the change in estimates. An enterprise is not required to include additional interim period financial information in its annual financial statements.
Recognition and Measurement
Same Accounting Policies as Annual
27. An enterprise should apply the same accounting policies in its interim financial statements as are applied in its annual financial statements, except for accounting policy changes made after the date of the most recent annual financial statements that are to be reflected in the next annual financial statements. However, the frequency of an enterprise’s reporting (annual, half-yearly, or quarterly) should not affect the measurement of its annual results. To achieve that objective, measurements for interim reporting purposes should be made on a year-to-date basis.
28. Requiring that an enterprise apply the same accounting policies in its interim financial statements as in its annual financial statements may seem to suggest that interim period measurements are made as if each interim period stands alone as an independent reporting period. However, by providing that the frequency of an enterprise’s reporting should not affect the measurement of its annual results, paragraph 27 acknowledges that an interim period is a part of a financial year. Year-to-date measurements may involve changes in estimates of amounts reported in prior interim periods of the current financial year. But the principles for recognising assets, liabilities, income, and expenses for interim periods are the same as in annual financial statements.
29. To illustrate:
(a) the principles for recognising and measuring losses from inventory write-downs, restructurings, or impairments in an interim period are the same as those that an enterprise would follow if it prepared only annual financial statements. However, if such items are recognised and measured in one interim period and the estimate changes in a subsequent interim period of that financial year, the original estimate is changed in the subsequent interim period either by accrual of an additional amount of loss or by reversal of the previously recognised amount;
(b) a cost that does not meet the definition of an asset at the end of an interim period is not deferred on the balance sheet date either to await future information as to whether it has met the definition of an asset or to smooth earnings over interim periods within a financial year; and
(c) income tax expense is recognised in each interim period based on the best estimate of the weighted average annual income tax rate expected for the full financial year. Amounts accrued for income tax expense in one interim period may have to be adjusted in a subsequent interim period of that financial year if the estimate of the annual income tax rate changes.
30. Under the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements, recognition is the “process of incorporating in the balance sheet or statement of profit and loss an item that meets the definition of an element and satisfies the criteria for recognition”. The definitions of assets, liabilities, income, and expenses are fundamental to recognition, both at annual and interim financial reporting dates.
31. For assets, the same tests of future economic benefits apply at interim dates as they apply at the end of an enterprise’s financial year. Costs that, by their nature, would not qualify as assets at financial year end would not qualify at interim dates as well. Similarly, a liability at an interim reporting date must represent an existing obligation at that date, just as it must at an annual reporting date.
32. Income is recognised in the statement of profit and loss when an increase in future economic benefits related to an increase in an asset or a decrease of a liability has arisen that can be measured reliably. Expenses are recognised in the statement of profit and loss when a decrease in future economic benefits related to a decrease in an asset or an increase of a liability has arisen that can be measured reliably. The recognition of items in the balance sheet which do not meet the definition of assets or liabilities is not allowed.
33. In measuring assets, liabilities, income, expenses, and cash flows reported in its financial statements, an enterprise that reports only annually is able to take into account information that becomes available throughout the financial year. Its measurements are, in effect, on a year-to-date basis.
34. An enterprise that reports half-yearly, uses information available by mid-year or shortly thereafter in making the measurements in its financial statements for the first six-month period and information available by year- end or shortly thereafter for the twelve-month period. The twelve-month measurements will reflect any changes in estimates of amounts reported for the first six-month period. The amounts reported in the interim financial report for the first six-month period are not retrospectively adjusted. Paragraphs 16(d) and 25 require, however, that the nature and amount of any significant changes in estimates be disclosed.
35. An enterprise that reports more frequently than half-yearly, measures income and expenses on a year-to-date basis for each interim period using information available when each set of financial statements is being prepared. Amounts of income and expenses reported in the current interim period will reflect any changes in estimates of amounts reported in prior interim periods of the financial year. The amounts reported in prior interim periods are not retrospectively adjusted. Paragraphs 16(d) and 25 require, however, that the nature and amount of any significant changes in estimates be disclosed
Revenues Received Seasonally or Occasionally
36. Revenues that are received seasonally or occasionally within a financial year should not be anticipated or deferred as of an interim date if anticipation or deferral would not be appropriate at the end of the enterprise’s financial year.
37. Examples include dividend revenue, royalties, and government grants. Additionally, some enterprises consistently earn more revenues in certain interim periods of a financial year than in other interim periods, for example, seasonal revenues of retailers. Such revenues are recognised when they occur.
Costs Incurred Unevenly During the Financial Year
38. Costs that are incurred unevenly during an enterprise’s financial year should be anticipated or deferred for interim reporting purposes if, and only if, it is also appropriate to anticipate or defer that type of cost at the end of the financial year.
Applying the Recognition and Measurement principles
39. Illustration 3 attached to the Standard illustrates application of the general recognition and measurement principles set out in paragraphs 27 to 38.
Use of Estimates
40. The measurement procedures to be followed in an interim financial report should be designed to ensure that the resulting information is reliable and that all material financial information that is relevant to an understanding of the financial position or performance of the enterprise is appropriately disclosed. While measurements in both annual and interim financial reports are often based on reasonable estimates, the preparation of interim financial reports generally will require a greater use of estimation methods than annual financial reports.
41. Illustration 4 attached to the Standard illustrates the use of estimates in interim periods.
Restatement of Previously Reported Interim Periods
42. A change in accounting policy, other than one for which the transition is specified by an Accounting Standard, should be reflected by restating the financial statements of prior interim periods of the current financial year.
43. One objective of the preceding principle is to ensure that a single accounting policy is applied to a particular class of transactions throughout an entire financial year. The effect of the principle in paragraph 42 is to require that within the current financial year any change in accounting policy be applied retrospectively to the beginning of the financial year.
44. On the first occasion that an interim financial report is presented in accordance with this Standard, the following need not be presented in respect of all the interim periods of the current financial year:
(a) comparative statements of profit and loss for the comparable interim periods (current and year-to-date) of the immediately preceding financial year; and
(b) comparative cash flow statement for the comparable year-to-date period of the immediately preceding financial year.