There are two types of taxes in India – direct and indirect.
A direct tax is a tax you pay on your income directly to the government. Indirect tax is a tax that restaurants, theatres and e-commerce websites charge you on for goods or a service. This tax is, in turn, passed down to the government. Indirect taxes take many forms: service tax on restaurant bills and movie tickets, value added tax or VAT on goods such as clothes and electronics.
Goods and services tax, which has recently been introduced is a unified tax that has replaced all the indirect taxes that business owners have to deal with.
Let us discuss the entire process of income tax in India.
|31 January||31 March||31 July||Oct – Nov|
|Deadline to submit your investment proofs||Deadline to make investments under Section 80C||Last date to file your tax return||Time to verify your tax return|
For simpler classification, the Income Tax Department breaks down income into five heads:
|Head of Income||Nature of Income covered|
|Income from Salary||Income from salary and pension are covered under here|
|Income from Other Sources||Income from savings bank account interest, fixed deposits, winning KBC|
|Income from House Property||This is rental income mostly|
|Income from Capital Gains||Income from sale of a capital asset such as mutual funds, shares, house property|
|Income from Business and Profession||This is when you are self-employed, work as a freelancer or contractor, or you run a business. Life insurance agents, chartered accountants, doctors and lawyers who have their own practice, tuition teachers|
People’s incomes are grouped into blocks called tax brackets or tax slabs. And each tax slab has a different tax rate.
In India, we have four tax brackets each with an increasing tax rate.
- Income earners of up to 5 lakhs
- Income earners of between 5 lakhs and 10 lakhs
- And those who make more than 10 lakhs per year
|Income Range||Tax rate||Tax to be paid|
|Up to Rs.2,50,000||0||No tax|
|Between Rs 2.5 lakhs and Rs 5 lakhs||5%||5% of your taxable income|
|Between Rs 5 lakhs and Rs 10 lakhs||20%||Rs 12,500+ 20% of income above Rs 5 lakhs|
|Above 10 lakhs||30%||Rs 1,12,500+ 30% of income above Rs 10 lakhs|
A word of note: People often misunderstand that if they earn let’s say Rs.12 lakhs, they will be paying a 30% tax on Rs.12 lakhs i.e Rs.3,60,000. That’s incorrect. A person earning 12 lakhs in the progressive tax system, will pay Rs.1,12,500+ Rs.60,000 = Rs. 1,72,500.
Check out the income tax slabs for previous years and other age brackets.
|Type of capital asset||Holding period||Tax rate|
|House Property||Holding more than 24 months
Holding less than 24 months
Depends on slab rate
|Debt mutual funds||Holding more than 36 months
Holding less than 36 months
Depends on slab rate
|Equity mutual funds||Holding more than 12 months
Holding less than 12 months
|Shares (STT paid)
Shares (STT unpaid)
|Holding more than 12 months
Holding less than 12 monthsHolding more than 12 months
Holding less than 12 months
|FMPs||Holding more than 36 months
Holding less than 36 months
Depends on slab rate
If you are a NRI, only your income earned or accrued in India is taxable.
If you are resident Indian for that financial year, then your global income is taxable.
Check your residential status on ClearTax.
Calculating Income Tax
- Filing income tax return online: The process
- E-file online. It is a more complete and better alternative to filing on the income tax website. Also it is for more than just e-filing your income tax return. ClearTax helps you claim all the deductions you’re eligible for and helps you invest.
- Send ITR V or e-verify your tax return
- Get income tax refund
- The deadline to e-file your income tax return is 31 July.
- There’s income tax return form ranging from ITR 1 to ITR 7 for different types of income. Some income tax forms are longer than the others and they may need additional disclosures such balance sheet and a profit and loss statement.
- The documents you are going to need to file your tax return are largely going to depend on your source of income. The only documents you are going to need is your Form 26AS and Form 16 if you are salaried.
- Here’s a guide to e-filing your first tax return on ClearTax.
- Stamp duty and Registration under Section 80C
- Home loan principal and interest
- First time homeowner benefit of Rs.50,000 under Section 80EE
Tax deduction on home purchase with a home loan in FY 2017-18
|Deduction on||Maximum allowed
(for self-occupied house property)
(for property on rent)
|Stamp duty and registration + principal||Rs.1,50,000 within the overall limit of Section 80C||Rs.1,50,000 within the overall limit of Section 80C|
|Deduction on home loan interest under Section 24||Rs.2,00,000||No cap (but rental income must be shown in the income tax return)|
|Deduction for first-time homeowners under Section 80EE
*certain conditions apply
- House Rent Allowance or HRA (for salaried only)
Given how many Indians move cities for work, this is a common allowance most salaried individuals can find in their payslips. If you are renting an apartment, be sure to claim this in your tax return.
- Section 80GG (if you are renting and don’t get HRA)
If you are not salaried, or you are still salaried, but don’t get HRA, then you can claim deduction for rent under Section 80GG. Learn more.
- Life insurance under Section 80C
- Medical insurance under Section 80D
- Preventative health checkups
- Medical bills (for salaried only)
Tax Deductions for health insurance under Section 80D in FY 2017-18
|Person insured||Maximum deduction
Below 60 years
60 years or older
|You, your spouse, your children||Rs.25,000||Rs.50,000|
|Preventative health checkup||Rs.5,000||Rs.5,000|
|Maximum deduction (includes preventative health checkup)||Rs.50,000||Rs.1,00,000|
Employee provident fund (for salaried only)
Companies cut 12% of your basic salary and put it in a fund managed by EPFO. Public provident fund
Individuals can open a PPF account from a post office or a public sector bank like State Bank of India and ICICI Bank. Pension under Section 80CCD(1B)
|Investment||Risk||Interest||Guaranteed Returns||Lock-in Period|
|ELSS funds||Equity-related risk||12-15% expected||No||3 years|
|5-Year FDs||Risk-free||7-9% expected||Yes||5 years|
How to claim Tax Deductions?If you are salaried, the simplest way to claim tax deductions is through the investment declaration system. Investment declaration window typically open in the Dec-Feb period. Check with your employer for exact dates.
You can claim tax deductions in your tax return directly if you’ve missed submitting your proofs, or if you are not salaried. Do note that only Section 80 related deductions can be availed.
How to pick an investment option under Section 80C?
There are clearly many investment options that are available. Each one has a different tax impact, a different lock-in period and risk.
Weigh them out and zero in on one that’s right for you.
A word of advice: To maximize your returns, pick investments that are not taxable at the time of withdrawal and schemes where interest and dividends earned are also tax-exempt.
How to save tax other than Section 80C?Buy health insurance under Section 80D
Buy or renew insurance policy for yourself and your members of the family (parents and dependent children) and seek tax deduction under Section 80D.You can save up to Rs. 25,000 if you bought an health insurance policy for you, your spouse, and dependent children. You can claim an additional Rs.30,000 when you pay health insurance premium for your parents and they are more than 60 years old.If you were to make full use of this deduction under Section 80D this year, you stand to save a maximum of Rs.55,000.
Make a donation and claim deduction under 80G
Donations to certain charitable organizations is tax-deductible either fully or 50%.
Invest in a pension fund under Section 80CCD(1B)
In order to ensure that working Indians have a retirement plan, the government incentivized investments into pension schemes in 2015.
A contribution of up to Rs.50,000 towards NPS can be claimed as a deduction in addition to Rs. 1,50,000 under Section 80C. If you have already done your tax planning for FY 2017-18 and see that you have exhausted the Rs.1,50,000 limit, consider investing in NPS.
Savings bank account interest under Section 80TTA
Savings bank account interest of up to Rs.10,000 is tax-deductible under Section 80TTA.
The Government collects income tax from three channels:
- Advance tax
- Self Assessment tax
- TDS exists to help government get tax throughout the year. There’s a prescribed table on how much tax deducted under what circumstances.
- Your employer cuts TDS based on the information available to him about you. So if you’ve made investments, but have not declared or if you live in a rented house, but have not shared rent receipts, your finance department will have no choice but to deduct tax based on only thing they know – your CTC.
- This is why the investment proofs deadline in your office is super important. Save yourself some headache and submit your investment proofs on time.
- Banks don’t know if you’re working in a company or if income from fixed deposits is what you solely rely on. So they deduct a standard 10% tax before they give away the interest. Now if you fall in the 20% or 30% bracket, it’s on you to pay the remainder of the income tax. That’s why sometimes you may find yourself paying some tax at the time of filing a tax return.
- Make sure banks have your PAN number. They deduct 20% tax if they don’t have your PAN in their records.
- Anyone who’s receiving an income will have some percentage of tax withheld as prescribed by the government.
Self-employed people must do the calculation themselves and pay the tax to the Government periodically every quarter.
The deadlines are:
|Due Date||Advance Tax Payable|
|On or before 15th June||15% of advance tax|
|On or before 15th September||45% of advance tax|
|On or before 15th December||75% of advance tax|
|On or before 15th March||100% of advance tax|
To calculate your advance tax:
- Add up all the invoices received and include future payments you will be receiving till March 31 to estimate your taxable income.
- Deduct expenses directly related to your business, and any investments you have made under Section 80C in order to arrive at your taxable income.
- Use the ClearTax calculator to find out your tax liability.
When you are filing a tax return and you find out that you need to pay additional tax, you’d be paying self assessment tax. Another way to think about this would be.
- if you are paying tax for a financial year after the deadline has ended, you will pay self assessment tax.
- if you are paying tax for a financial year during the financial year, you will pay advance tax.
Form 26AS is a tax summary statement that contains all the tax payments you’ve made yourself (self-assessment tax/ advance tax) or tax someone deducted (TDS) on your behalf. You’re going to need this document when you are doing your income tax e-filing. Form 26AS can be downloaded from www.incometaxindiaefiling.com.
If you need to know whether or not your company has given you some tax allowance like your offer letter says, or want to see how much tax has been deducted throughout the year, or need to see EPF contributions, wouldn’t it be easier if you could see them all in one place? That’s your Form 16.
Form 16 has:
- a summary of all the tax deducted by each quarter
- all the tax benefits and allowances you’ve availed as a salaried individual
- Section 80C deductions you’ve claimed through your employer
- and your taxable income after allowances and Section 80C deductions
This is a super important document for all salaried individuals. And having a Form 16 makes e-filing your income tax return very simple. You can upload your Form 16 and e-file your income tax return. No income tax login required.
Form 16A is very similar to a Form 16 in that it contains how much tax was deducted over what income. So how’s Form 16A different?
Form 16A will never be issued by an employer. They’re usually given to you by a bank that’s deducting TDS, or a company that’s deducted tax on your freelancing service.
Depending on how large your company is, you might have two deadlines related to investment proofs. There’s one in the beginning of the year (April) that needs you to just declare how much money you’re planning to invest in Section 80C. This will give an indication on how much they need to deduct in TDS.
Again in the last quarter (roughly between December and February), you will be asked to submit investment proofs. This is when you need to submit all your rent receipts, medical bills (if you’re getting medical reimbursement), investments under Section 80C, 80D.
Financial Year runs between April 1 and March 31 of each year. Income tax is calculated for this period. Income tax returns are assessed the year after the financial year has finished. So that’s your Assessment Year. During the assessment year, taxpayers file their income tax return. Income tax return and refunds are processed by the I-T Department that year.
ITRV stands for Income Tax Return – Verification. After filing your tax return online, you must print and sign a 1-page document and send it to the Income Tax Department.
Challan 280 is the slip that you will use for online income tax payment.
Follow this guide to learn how to pay tax due.
This is the link to the Income Tax Department website. If you are a taxpayer, you’re going to need to use for:
- Getting your tax credit statement Form 26AS
- Getting your tax records for home loan or visa application
- Verifying your income tax return after ITR submission