1. What is NAV?
Net Asset Value (NAV) is the market value of a mutual fund unit. The overall cost of a mutual fund depends on this market value per fund unit. If you add up the market value of all the shares in the fund and divide it by the number of total mutual fund units, the resulting figure will be NAV.
NAV is simply the price per share of the fund. Just like shares have a share price; mutual funds have a net asset value.
Generally, mutual fund units begin with a unit-cost of ₹10 and it rises as the fund’s assets under the AMC grows. So, a popular fund will have a higher net asset value than a less popular one. This brings us to the next question. How important is the net asset value when selecting a mutual fund?
2. How is NAV relevant to investors?
It is not wise to base your investment decision on the NAV of a mutual fund scheme. NAVs does not reflect the future prospects of the mutual fund scheme. It is just the total value of the mutual fund scheme investments less liabilities and expenses.
Therefore, a higher NAV means the scheme investments have prospered really well or the scheme has been around for a long period. The investors should focus on the scheme’s performance and the returns generated while investing in a mutual fund scheme.
3. What is the difference between NAV & Market Price?
Investors tend to assume that the net asset value and the market price of an equity share are the same, which is not true. They might be selling or buying the mutual fund units at NAV but it shouldn’t be confused with the market price of a unit. The share price is decided by investors in the stock market. Whereas the investors do not decide the NAV of a mutual fund unit.
Factors like demand-supply and company’s potential also determine the share price. So, the net asset value will always be different from the market price of a share.
4. How is NAV calculated?
a. General Net Asset Value Calculation
If a mutual fund has a NAV of ₹500, then that is how much you will have to pay for one unit of that mutual fund. Conversely, if you invest ₹5,000 in a mutual fund with a net asset value of ₹500, then they will allow you 10 units of that fund.
The cost of an equity fund is the total cost of all the shares it has. These price fluctuations are subject to the changes as per the share market and this is why mutual fund portfolio comes with a daily value.
b. Daily NAV Calculation
All mutual companies estimate their portfolio worth once the stock market closes at 3:30 p.m., each day. The market opens again the next day with the previous day’s closing share prices. The fund house deducts all the outstanding liabilities and expenses accordingly to calculate net asset value (NAV) of the day using the given formula.
Net Asset Value = [Assets – (Liabilities + Expenses)] / Number of outstanding units
Assets of a mutual fund scheme are divided into securities and liquid cash. Securities include both the equity, debentures, bonds and commercial papers. Interest accrued and dividends are also part of the assets.
The cash balance in the bank account is added and the money payable to others are subtracted to determine the net asset value of the fund. The fund manager also deducts the daily expenses to manage a fund.
You get the cost per unit on a daily basis when you divide total asset value by the number of mutual fund units issued so far.
5. How does investment-timing affect NAV
A mutual fund company releases its latest NAV on all working days, due to which it is strictly time-bound. This is why mutual funds keep a deadline for daily investments, which is 2 p.m. for liquid funds or 3 p.m. for equity or debt funds. You can be allotted the NAV of the same day, the previous day or the next day according to the time you submit your application and funds.
If you invest before 2 p.m. in a liquid fund, you will be allotted units at the NAV of the previous day. This will happen only if you also transfer the money before the deadline. If you miss the deadline and submit your application and money after 2 p.m., you will be allotted units at the NAV of the same day.
If you submit your application before 2 p.m. but fail to transfer the money before the deadline, you will not be eligible for the previous day’s NAV.
In the case of equity and other debt funds, the deadline is 3 p.m. If you submit the application before 3 p.m., you will get the unit on the basis of the same day’s NAV. Submitting the application after the deadline will get you the next day’s NAV. Unlike liquid funds, it is not necessary to transfer the funds before such timeline.
6. Role of NAV in fund performance
A lot of investors think of net asset value is similar to a stock price. This causes them to believe that a fund with a lower net asset value is cheaper and hence, a better investment. In truth, it is not an indicator of mutual fund performance. A lower value alone does not make a fund a better investment or vice versa. Hence, it should not be the only determining factor to choose a mutual fund.
Illustration – Role of NAV in fund performance
Let us look at two funds we have picked at random. On 21 September 2017, the NAV of Frontline Equity was ₹215.77 and that of Focused Bluechip Equity was ₹38.53. There is a stark difference in the net asset value of both funds, but as the table below shows, the performance of both funds are comparable.
|Fund name||NAV (₹)||Launch date||AUM (₹)||1-year returns (%)||3-year returns (%)||5-year returns (%)|
|Birla Sun Life Frontline Equity||215.77||30 August 2002||18,948 crore||17.71||13.35||19.33|
|ICICI Pru Focused Bluechip Equity||38.53||23 May 2008||14,337 crore||18.37||11.94||17.63|
Basically, the NAV should not have bearing on any of your fund selection. It basically shows how the underlying assets have performed. In the above table, the NAV of ICICI Prudential fund is relatively lesser than the Birla Sun Life fund. However, it is not an appropriate indicator of fund performance. You need to look for returns perspective keeping your investment horizon in mind and make an informed decision.
In short, a fund’s NAV is more useful in understanding how the fund performs on an everyday basis. Always look at the fund’s historical performance and current cost among other parameters before investing.