Reviewed by Sep 30, 2020| Updated on
Bureaucracy refers both to a body of government officials who are not elected and to an administrative policy-making group. Historically a bureaucracy has been a government administration run by departments employed by non-elected officials. Today, bureaucracy is the administrative structure which governs any large institution, whether it is owned by the public or private. In many countries, public administration is an example of a bureaucracy, but so is a company's centralized, hierarchical structure.
An indispensable part of any modern administration is the bureaucratic system. While Britain established this program in the second half of the nineteenth century, it has become an integral part of both industrialized and emerging nations. Free India leaders thought it prudent to continue the British raj-created bureaucratic system of public administration.
Bureaucracies have four key characteristics: a clear hierarchy, specialization, a division of labour, and a set of formal rules, or standard operating procedures. There are ministers at the top of the executive to account to the legislature. In general, the ministers are named temporary executives because their appointment is related to the election. In addition to the temporary executives, there are a large number of government officials whose service term is fixed.
The legislature sanctions fund and gives a general outline, policy frames for the council of ministers and the real task is the implementation; the policy is carried out by the bureaucracy. The burden has been imposed on India's bureaucracy. That role is not just new but crucial. The time old roles on income collection and law and order management remain as before, and the further accelerating progress is not only modern but also comparatively significant.
India is a developing country. Developing it within a short period with limited resources is a huge and robust task. The ministers are temporary administrators, and the bureaucracy must, of course, turn a developing state into a functioning one. The developed countries bureaucracy is considered exempt from this mission. It is the bureaucracy which is responsible for the development work.