Reviewed by Vishnava | Updated on Sep 23, 2021


Definition of sampling

  • It is a statistical tool in which a fixed number of observations are taken from a larger population.
  • The behaviour or characteristics of the subset is used to estimate the characteristics of the entire population.

Purpose of sampling

  • It is to provide information about the statistical information regarding the whole by examining just a few units.
  • it reduces the time, effort and cost involved.
  • It allows for minimisation of the loss caused in case of any mishap or failure.
  • Scientific, observable method of testing a hypothesis.
  • There is a greater scope for flexibility and adaptability.


  • It is not a hundred percent fool-proof method and is prone to errors.
  • The sampling might not conform to the standards set.
  • The persons administering the experiment might not deal with the sample population effectively.
  • It might not be feasible for certain problems that demand a very high level of precision.

Types of Sampling

  • Random sampling – it is a kind of sampling in which every item in the population has an equal probability of being picked.
  • Block sampling - takes a consecutive series of items within the population to use as the sample.
  • Judgement sampling – an auditor’s judgement may be used to select the sample out of the population.
  • Systematic sampling – begins at a random sampling point within the population itself and this kind of sampling uses a fixed, periodic interval to select items for a sample.

Application of sampling

  • Surveys in most fields are done with the help of sampling. For example, magazines and trade journals utilise surveys to find out what their subscribers are reading.
  • It is a useful tool to determine where to channelise one’s advertising and campaigns toward.
  • It helps in inferring patterns of behaviour within a specific population in social sciences.
  • It is especially useful in medical research when numerous trials have to be conducted.

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