## AS 20: Earnings Per Share (EPS)

Earnings per share (EPS) is a financial ratio that provides information regarding earnings available on each equity share held in a company.  This ratio acts as an important financial tool to improve the comparability between two or more companies, as well as between two or more accounting periods. AS 20 entails the process of calculation of Earnings per share. There are two types of EPS which are to be reported by enterprises on the face of the statement of profit & loss account even if the amounts disclosed are negative (a loss per share). 1. Basic EPS 2. Diluted EPS 1.   Basic EPS Basic EPS = Net profit or loss attributable to equity shareholders / Weighted average number of outstanding equity shares Earnings – Basic (Numerator) Net profit or loss for the period as defined under AS 5 which is shown here:
 Particulars Amount Earnings before tax XXX (+) extraordinary items (income) XXX (-) extraordinary items (expenses) (XXX) (-) tax attributable to the period (XXX) (-) preference dividend * (XXX) Profit for the purpose of calculating EPS XXX
*the preference dividend deducted for the period is: (a) the amount of any preference dividends on non-cumulative preference shares provided for the period; and (b) the full amount of the required preference dividends for cumulative preference shares for the period, whether or not the dividends have been provided for. The amount of preference dividends for the period does not include the amount of any preference dividends for cumulative preference shares paid or declared during the current period in respect of previous periods. Per share – Basic (Denominator) For calculating basic earnings per share, the number of equity shares should be the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. The time-weighting factor = Number of days for which the specified share is outstanding / Total number of days in the period Example 1: Number of shares outstanding as on 01-01-2010 are 2000. Fresh issue of 600 shares for cash on 31-05-2010. Buy back of 300 shares on 01-11-2010. Solution: The weighted average outstanding number of shares = (2000 x 12/12) + (600 x 7/12) – (300 x 2/12) = 2300 shares Example 2: Opening balance of shares as on 01-01-2010 is 2000 shares. On 31-10-2010, issue of 600 shares of Rs. 10 each, Rs. 5 paid up. Solution: As per AS 20, partly paid up equity shares should be calculated in the ratio of amount paid up to face value (amount paid / face value). The weighted average outstanding number of shares = (2000 x 12/12) + (600 x 5/10 x 2/12) = 2050 shares Example 3: On 01-01-2010, 2 Lac equity shares of Rs. 10 each fully paid up. On 30-06-2010, fresh issue of 2 lac equity shares of Rs. 5 each fully paid up. Solution: The weighted average outstanding number of shares = (2,00,000 x 12/12) + (2,00,000 x 5/10 x 6/12) = 2,50,000 shares Example 4: Net profit for the year 2010 is Rs. 18 lacs. Net profit for the year 2011 is Rs. 60 lacs. Number of equity shares outstanding till 30-09-2010 is 20 lacs. Bonus issue on 01-10-2011 = 2 (new): 1(old). Calculate EPS for the year 2011 and adjusted EPS for the year 2010. Solution: As per AS 20, when bonus shares are issued during the year, it should be calculated in the weighted average from the beginning of reporting period irrespective of issue date. Therefore, the bonus issue is treated as if it had occurred prior to the beginning of the year 2010, the earliest period reported.
 Particulars Amount (in Rs.) Net profit for the year 2010 18,00,000 Net profit for the year 2011 60,00,000 Number of equity shares outstanding till 30-09-2011 20,00,000 Bonus issue on 01-10-2011 20,00,000 x 2 = 40,00,000 Earnings per share for the year 2011 60,00,000 /(20,00,000 + 40,00,000) = Re. 1 Adjusted Earnings per share for the year 2010 18,00,000 / (20,00,000 + 40,00,000) = Re. 0.30
Example 5: Net profit for the year 2010 is Rs. 11,00,000 and for the year 2011 is Rs. 15,00,000. Number of shares outstanding prior to right are 5,00,000 shares. Right issue of one new share for each five outstanding at right issue price of Rs. 15. Last date to exercise rights is 01-03-2011. Fair value of one equity share immediately prior to exercise of rights on 01-03-2011 is Rs. 21. Compute basic EPS for the year 2011 and adjusted EPS for the year 2010. Solution: As per Para 22, Theoretical ex-rights fair value per share = (Fair value of all shares prior to rights + Right issue proceeds) / Number of shares outstanding post right issue = {(Rs. 21 x 5,00,000 shares) + (Rs. 15 x 1,00,000 shares)} / 5,00,000 shares + 1,00,000 shares = Rs. 20 Bonus element = Fair value per share prior to exercise of rights / Theoretical ex-rights value per share  = 20 / 21 = 1.05
 Computation of Earnings Per Share Particulars 2010 2011 EPS for the year 2010 as originally reported: Rs. 11,00,000/5,00,000 shares Rs. 2.20 EPS for the year 2010 as restated for rights issue: Rs. 11,00,000/(5,00,000 shares x 1.05) Rs. 2.10 EPS for the year 2011 including effects of right issue Rs. 15,00,000 / {(5,00,000 x 1.05 x 2/12) + (6,00,000 x 10/12)} Rs. 2.55

1.       Diluted EPS
For calculating diluted earnings per share, the net profit or loss for the period attributable to equity shareholders and the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period should be adjusted for the effects of all dilutive potential equity shares. Earnings – Diluted (Numerator) For calculating Diluted EPS, the numerator used for basic EPS should be adjusted by the following, after considering any attributable change in tax expense for the period:

a) any dividends on dilutive potential equity shares which have been deducted in arriving numerator of basic EPS;

b) interest recognized in the period for the dilutive potential equity shares; and

c) any other changes in expenses or income that would result from the conversion of the dilutive potential equity shares.

Per share – Diluted (Denominator) For calculating diluted earnings per share, the number of equity shares should be the aggregate of the weighted average number of equity shares which would be issued on the conversion of all the dilutive potential equity shares into equity shares. Diluted earning per share is calculated in the case of potential equity share like convertible debentures, convertible preference shares, options etc. Potential equity shares are diluted if their conversion into equity shares reduces the earning per share and if it increases, then they are considered as anti-dilutive. Example:
 Particulars Amount Net profit for the current year Rs. 1,00,00,000 Number of equity shares outstanding 50,00,000 Basic EPS 1,00,00,000/50,00,000 = 2 Number of 12% convertible debentures of Rs. 100 each Each debenture is convertible into 10 equity shares 1,00,000 Interest expense for the current year Rs. 12,00,000 Tax relating to interest expense (30%) Rs. 3,60,000

 Particulars Amount Adjusted Net profit for the current year Rs. (1,00,00,000 + 12,00,000 – 3,60,000) = Rs. 1,08,40,000 Number of equity shares resulting from conversion of debentures 10,00,000 Number of equity shares used to calculate diluted earnings per share 50,00,000 + 10,00,000 = 60,00,000 Diluted earnings per share 1,08,40,000/60,00,000 = Rs. 1.81

### Comparison between Ind AS33 and AS 20

 Basis IND AS 33 AS 20 Extraordinary items EPS is required to be disclosed without extraordinary items. EPS is required to be disclosed with and without extraordinary items. Disclosure Requires the disclosure of basic and diluted EPS from continuing and discontinued operations separately. Does not require disclosure of basic and diluted EPS from continuing and discontinued operations separately. Put options Provides additional clarity and guidance on aspects like options held by entity on its own shares like: written put options, purchased options, etc. Does not deal with these aspects