What is capital goods?
Capital goods are assets such as buildings, machinery, equipment, vehicles and tools that an organization uses to produce goods or services. For example, a blast furnace used in iron and steel industry is a capital asset for the steel manufacturer.
Difference between capital goods & other inputs
Let us take an example.
You are making a cake in your oven. You add ingredients eggs, water, flour, butter. These are your inputs. The cake is your final product. The oven is the capital good which helps you to make the cake.
Inputs are consumed while making the final product and are treated as business expenses as cost of production.
Capital goods are not consumed when the final product is made. They are not consumed in a single year of production. Therefore, they cannot be entirely deducted as business expenses in the year of their purchase. Instead, they are depreciated over the course of their useful lives. The business recognises part of the cost each year through accounting techniques as depreciation, amortization and depletion.
What is credit on capital goods?
When you purchase anything, you are required to pay GST on it. Later, you can claim input tax credit on the GST paid on your purchases. SImilarly, when you are purchasing any machinery for your factory, you will pay the applicable GST rate. This GST paid can be claimed as credit in the same way as inputs.
However, if you claim depreciation on the GST paid while purchasing the capital asset, you cannot claim input tax credit.
What is Common Credit?
Businesses often use the same assets and inputs for both business & personal use.
For example, Ms. Anita is a freelance designer and blogger. She has a personal laptop which she also uses for her freelance work. She can claim the input credit of GST paid on purchase of laptop only to the extent it pertains to her freelance business.
Ms. Anita has also purchased a special designing software. Since this pertains only to her business, she can claim full ITC on this.
Why is common credit important?
ITC is only available for business purposes. Many traders use the same inputs for both business & personal reasons. A taxpayer cannot claim any tax benefit of personal expenses.
Again, goods exempted under GST already enjoy 0% GST. ITC cannot be claimed for inputs used in such exempted goods as it will lead to negative taxation. So, ITC on inputs for exempted goods will also be removed.
The following calculations will help you to calculate the common credit that is attributable to personal supplies & exempted supplies leaving behind only the portion that pertains to taxable sales. Only that amount can be claimed as ITC.
Types of ITC for Capital Goods
Let us take each case one by one.
A. Capital Goods used only for Personal Use or for Exempted Sales
No ITC is available for personal purchases or for capital goods used in exempted sales. This will be indicated in FORM GSTR-2 and shall not be credited to the electronic credit ledger.
Example 1: Personal Purchases
Ms. Anita has purchased a fridge. Since this is not required for her business, i.e., a purely personal purchase, she will not be able to claim any ITC on the GST paid for the fridge.
Example 2: Capital Goods used for exempted sales
Mr. Avinash has purchased a small flour mill in his grocery shop to grind wheat grains to flour. Since he is producing unbranded flour it is exempted from GST. As it is an exempted sales, he cannot claim any ITC on the GST paid for the mill.
B. Capital Goods used for normal sales
XYZ has purchased machinery to manufacture shoes. Since, shoes are normal taxable supplies, the GST included paid while purchasing machinery will be completely available as ITC. This shall be indicated in FORM GSTR-2 and shall be credited to the electronic credit ledger.
C. Common credit for partly personal/ exempted and partly normal sales
- The ITC paid for the capital goods will be credited to electronic credit ledger
- Useful life of such capital asset will be taken as 5 years from the date of purchase
- Now the total amount of input tax credited to electronic credit ledger for the whole useful life will be distributed over the useful life
The useful life will be taken as 5 years.
If you pay GST on a monthly basis then you will use the following formula
If your turnover is less than 1.5 crore, then you will pay GST on a quarterly basis. ITC will be calculated using the following formula
Calculations for common credit
C.1 For exempted supplies
The amount of ITC attributable to exempt supplies out of common capital credit –
Remaining amount after deducting credit for exempt supplies will be allowed as ITC.
All the above calculations must be done separately for:
- Central tax
- State Tax
- Union Territory Tax
- Integrated Tax
C.2 What happens if one starts using an asset for exempt goods also for taxable goods?
If a capital asset was earlier used exclusively used for:
- Personal purpose OR
- Selling exempted goods
And now it will is used commonly for:
- Business and personal purpose OR
- Effecting taxable and exempt supplies
Input tax to be credited to electronic credit ledger = Input Tax – 5% of Input tax for every quarter or part thereof from date of invoice
Let us understand this via an example.
Mr. Avinash bought a capital asset for use in exempt supplies only. He paid Rs 1,00,000/- along with GST of Rs 18,000 as input tax on 01/10/2017. On 15/11/2018 he wishes to use the capital asset commonly for both taxable and exempt supplies.
Now the eligible common input tax credit will be calculated as follows
= Input Tax – 5% of Input tax for every quarter or part thereof
The no. of quarters from 01/10/2017 to 15/11/2018= 5
= 18,000 – (5% of 18000) * 5 quarters
= 18,000 – 4,500
Now, this is the common credit available to Mr. Avinash. He will credit Rs 13,500 to Electronic Credit ledger.
Now he will calculate the ITC attributable to exempted supplies as per the formula in C.1.
Common credit for 1 month= 13,500÷60=225
Assuming his total turnover is 160 lakhs and exempted sales is 40 lakhs-
This amount 56.25 will be reversed in GSTR-2 under Table 11 ITC Reversal.
Reversal of credit under certain circumstances
In the following circumstances the proportionate ITC will be reversed i.e. added to output tax liability in GSTR-2:
- Where a normal taxpayer opts to pay tax under composition scheme or goods/services supplied by him become exempt
- In case of supply of capital goods or plant and machinery, on which input tax credit has been taken
- Every registered person whose registration is cancelled
Input tax credit involved in the remaining useful life in months shall be computed on pro-rata basis, taking the useful life as five years.
Capital goods have been in use for 4 years, 6 month and 15 days.
Therefore, the useful remaining life in months= 5 months ignoring a part of the month
Input tax credit taken on such capital goods= C (say 10 lakhs)
Input tax credit attributable to remaining useful life= C *5÷60
The above calculation must be done separately for integrated tax and central tax.
This amount must be reversed in (i.e. becomes part of output tax liability) and furnished in:
- Where a normal taxpayer opts to pay tax under composition scheme or goods/services supplied by him become exempt- FORM GST ITC-03
- Registration is cancelled- FORM GSTR-10
This must be accompanied by a certificate from a practicing chartered accountant or cost accountant.
In case of sale of capital goods, if the amount determined above is greater than the tax on transaction value of such sale, then the amount determined as above will be added to output tax liability. The details must be furnished in FORM GSTR-1.
Capital goods send on job work
ITC will be allowed to the principal manufacturer if a capital asset has been sent to a job worker for job work.
Such goods must be received back within a period of 3 years of being sent out.
If the goods are not sent back within 3 years, it shall be treated as a deemed supply from the date of sending the goods and tax would be payable along with interest for late payment of taxes.
For more information on ITC on job work please refer our article.
Please also read our article on ITC rules for common credit for inputs under GST.
From the above calculations, it is clear that ITC Rules for Common Credit under GST have been meant to be followed strictly to avoid interest and other recovery mechanisms.
ClearTax GST Software will take care of your ITC by automatically calculating the common credit. We also have a offline GST Calculator which will help you to calculate the tax liability well in advance so that you can be cash ready.