Every business wants to know the incomes earned and expenses incurred during a particular period, usually at the end of the year. Profit & Loss Account reflects the income and expenses of the business. It is a financial statement reflecting the outcome of business activities of an organisation during an accounting period. The Profit & Loss Account reports the incomes and expenses directly related to an organisation to measure the performance in terms of profit or loss. Profit & Loss Account is also known as P&L A/c, Profit & Loss Statement, Income Statement or Income and Expense Statement.
The Profit & Loss Statement is a crucial financial statement summarising the costs, revenues and expenses incurred by a business during a specific period, usually a quarter or year. All the indirect expenses and incomes, including the gross profit/loss, are reported in the Profit & Loss Statement to arrive at the net profit or loss. It shows the company’s net profit or loss during a specific time for which it is prepared. This statement helps companies make informed decisions about their operations and track their financial performance.
Profit & Loss Statement/Account shows the profits/losses earned/incurred by a business for a month or a year. Companies use Profit & Loss Statement and others use “T Account” for these below mentioned reasons. Profit & Loss Statement/Account is prepared for two main reasons.
Traditionally, there were two steps to know the profit/loss. It meant, the preparation of :
The trading account reflects the gross profit or loss of the business. Profit & Loss Account shows the net profit or loss earned by the company. Calculations in the Profit & Loss Account would be as follows:
Below is the process to prepare the Profit & Loss Statement:
The Profit & Loss Account consists of many components that record the expenses and income of the business under various categories, which are listed below:
The business’s income is classified into two main categories. The revenue from the primary business operations is recorded first, which includes the revenue generated in the normal course of business. The next category refers to the other income or the miscellaneous income of the business, which includes the income generated from the company's various investments, such as interest or dividend income.
Cost of Goods Sold
The Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) recorded in the Profit & Loss Statement includes the direct cost of operating like the labour cost, raw material cost or the direct overheads of the business related to the purchasing or manufacturing the goods. These expenses are deducted from the revenue to generate the business’s gross margin.
Operating expenses are the indirect expenses/costs involved in the production or manufacturing process of running a business. These expenses include administrative expenses like depreciation costs, employee costs, marketing and distribution costs, selling cost, research and development costs, etc.
The operating profit is the positive balance from the gross margin after deducting the operating expenses. It is also called EBIT (Earnings Before Interest and Taxes). A positive operating margin assures the stakeholders and investors of the business’s profitability and solvency.
The net income of a business is the net profit generated by the business after deducting all the operating and non-operating expenses, interest and taxes. It is the profit that is available for distribution to the shareholders. The earnings per share are also calculated based on the net profit or the business’s net income.
Let us take you through different formats of the profit & loss account:
No specific format of Profit & Loss Account is given for the sole traders and partnership firms. They can prepare the P&L Account in any form. However, it should reflect the gross profit & net profit separately.
Usually, these entities prefer “T shaped form” for preparing P&L account.
Trading and Profit & Loss Account
|To Opening Stock
|By Closing Stock
|To Direct Expenses
|To Gross Profit
|To Operating Expenses
|By Gross Profit
|To Operating Profit
|To Non-operating expenses
|By Operating Profit
|To Exceptional Items
|By Other Income
|To Finance Cost
|To Net Profit Before Tax
Companies have to prepare the Profit & Loss Account as per Schedule III of Companies Act, 2013.
Following is the format mentioned in Schedule III – STATEMENT OF PROFIT & LOSS
Name of the Company………….
Statement of Profit and Loss for the period ended…………….
|Figures for the current reporting period
|Figures for the previous reporting period
|a) Revenue From operations
|b) Other Income
|a) Cost of materials consumed
|b) Purchases of Stock-in-Trade
|c) Changes in inventories of finished goods, Stock-in -Trade and work-in-progress
|d) Employee benefits expense
|e) Finance costs
|f) Depreciation and amortisation expenses
|g) Other expenses
|Profit/(loss) before exceptional items and tax
|Profit/ (loss) before tax
|Profit (Loss) for the period from continuing operations
|Profit/(loss) from discontinued operations
|Tax expenses of discontinued operations
|Profit/(loss) from Discontinued operations (after tax)
|Profit/(loss) for the period
|Other Comprehensive Income
|A. (i) Items that will not be reclassified to profit or loss
|(ii) Income tax relating to items that will not be reclassified to profit or loss
|B. (i) Items that will be reclassified to profit or loss
|(ii) income tax relating to items that will be reclassified to profit or loss
|Total Comprehensive Income for the period Comprising Profit (Loss) and other comprehensive income for the period )
|Earnings per equity share (for continuing operation):
|Earnings per equity share (for discontinued operation):
|Earning per equity share (for discontinued & continuing operation)
Details to be disclosed in the notes
a. Amount of “Revenue from operations” will be divided in –
i. Sale of products (including excise duty)
ii. Sale of services
iii. Other operating revenues
b. Finance cost will be distributed in –
ii. Dividend on redeemable preference shares
iii. Exchange Differences regarded as an adjustment to borrowing costs, and
iv. Other borrowing costs (if any)
c. Other Income will be distributed in –
i. Interest Income,
ii. Dividend Income, and
iii. Other non-operating income
d. Other Comprehensive Income shall be classified into –
i.Items that will not be reclassified to profit or loss
Share of other comprehensive income in associates and joint ventures, to the extent not to be classified into profit or loss, and
ii. Items that will be reclassified to profit or loss
e. Employees benefit expense
i. Salaries and wages,
ii. Contribution to provident and other funds,
iii. Share-based payments to employees
iv. Staff welfare expenses
f. Depreciation and amortisation expense,
g. Interest Income,
h. Interest Expense,
i. Dividend Income,
j. Net gain or loss on sale of investments,
k. Net gain or loss on foreign currency transaction and translation (other than considered as finance cost),
l. Payment to the auditor as :
ii. For taxation matters
iii. For company law matters
iv. For other services
v. For reimbursement of expenses
m. Amount of expenses incurred on corporate social responsibility activities
n. Details of items of exceptional nature
o. Any other expense or income which exceeds higher of Rs. 10,00,000 or 1% of revenue from operations
For submitting Profit & Loss Account with the Registrar, a company has to file e-Form 23ACA.
With the form, it has to attach an audited copy of Profit & Loss Account. The e-form has to be digitally signed by a CA or CMA or CS, who is in whole time practise, certifying that the information entered in 23ACA is correct and audited Profit & Loss Account is attached with the form.
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