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Section 112 of Income Tax Act: How to calculate income tax on long-term capital gains

Updated on :  

08 min read.

Capital gains are taxed as per the tenure of holding investments. The gains on investments are broadly classified into long-term capital gains or short-term capital gains. The taxation of long-term capital gains is divided under two provisions, i.e. Section 112 and Section 112A of the Income Tax Act.

In this article, we will know the tax rates applicable to transfer all the long-term capital assets (except capital assets covered under Section 112A).

Section 112 applies to whom?

Section 112 applies to all types of taxpayers, such as individuals, HUF, company, firm, resident, non-resident (not a company), a foreign company, etc.

What types of long-term assets are covered under Section 112?

Section 112 specifies income tax rates on all kinds of long-term capital assets, such as-

  • Listed securities 
  • LTCG on zero-coupon bonds 
  • Unlisted securities 
  • Immovable property 
  • Other long-term capital assets

This section does not apply to the capital assets covered under Section 112A below-

  • Listed equity shares where STT paid on acquisition or transfer 
  • Units of equity-oriented mutual funds where STT paid on transfer 
  • Units of business trust where STT paid on transfer

How to classify various capital assets into long term and short term?

See the table below to understand how capital assets are classified:

Type of capital assetLong termShort term
Equity mutual funds 12 months and moreLess than 12 months
Debt mutual funds36 months and moreLess than 36 months
Zero-coupon bonds12 months and moreLess than 12 months
Equity shares (listed)12 months and moreLess than 12 months
Equity shares (unlisted)24 months and moreLess than 24 months
Immovable property24 months and moreLess than 24 months

What is the tax rate on long-term capital gain covered under Section 112?

  1. If there is LTCG on listed securities (other than units) and zero-coupon bonds 
    1. Tax rate is lower of-10% (without indexation)
    2. 20% (with indexation)
  2. In the case of a non-resident (other than a company) or a foreign company, if there is LTCG from unlisted securities or shares
    1. Tax rate is 10% on LTCG without computation of capital gain in foreign currency and indexation. i.e. Tax = 10% x (Sale price – Cost of Acquisition)
  3. For any other long-term capital asset such as units of debt fund, immovable property sold by a resident – Tax rate is 20%

There taxation rates for various types of long-term capital gains are as follows:

Taxation Rates:

Type of assetLong-term capital gains
Debt mutual funds20% with indexation
Zero-coupon bondsLower of:
20% after indexation (Resident),
10% without indexation
Unlisted equity shares
(Resident)
20% with indexation
Unlisted equity shares
(Non-resident)
10% without indexation
(Non-resident)
Immovable Property20% with indexation

How to calculate the tax liability if total income includes long-term capital gain?

If the total income of the taxpayer includes income from the transfer of long-term capital assets, then the income tax liability will be calculated as below-

  1. Reduce the total taxable income by the amount of long-term capital gains (LTCG) and calculate tax on the income so reduced as per the normal applicable tax rates applicable to individuals or a HUF.
  2. Separately calculate tax on the long-term capital gains at rates specified above.
  3. Add both the amounts (1+2) to know the total tax liability.

Points to remember

  1. In the case of individuals and HUFs, if the normal income, i.e. income excluding the long-term capital gain, is less than the basic exemption limit, then set off the unadjusted amount with the long-term capital gains and calculate tax on LTCG at specified rates (see example 2 below).
  2. The benefit of the basic exemption limit mentioned above does not apply to non-residents. 
  3. Chapter VI-A deduction will not apply to long-term capital gains (see example 3 below).

Illustrations

  1. Suppose an individual (below 60 years of age) has a total income of Rs 8 lakh in which long-term capital gain on sale of immovable property of Rs 1 lakh is included. So the tax payable by the individual can be calculated as below-
  • Income excluding LTCG- Rs 7 lakh (Rs 8 lakh – Rs 1 lakh)
  • Tax payable on Rs 7 lakh as per old tax slab rates- Rs 52,500
  • 20% tax on LTCG- Rs 20,000 (20% on Rs 1 lakh)
  • Total tax payable- Rs 72,500 (excluding cess)

2. Suppose an individual (below 60 years of age) has a total income of Rs 3.5 lakh in which long-term capital gain (mutual funds units) of Rs 3 lakh is included. Here, the normal income (Rs 3.5 lakh – Rs 3 lakh= Rs 50,000) is less than the basic exemption limit (Rs 2.5 lakh). So the tax payable by the individual can be calculated as below-

  • Income excluding LTCG – Rs 50,000 (Rs 3.5 lakh – Rs 3 lakh)
  • LTCG – Rs 3 lakh
  • Tax payable on Rs 50,000 – Nil
  • Basic exemption limit – Rs 2.5 lakh
  • Unadjusted amount (d-a) – Rs 2 lakh (Rs 2.5 lakh – Rs 50,000)
  • LTCG after adjusting
    basic exemption limit(b-e)- Rs 1 lakh (Rs 3 lakh – Rs 2 lakh)
  • 20% tax on adjusted LTCG (20% x f)- Rs 20,000 (20% on Rs 1 lakh)
  • Total tax payable (c + g)- Rs 20,000 (excluding cess)

3. Suppose an individual (below 60 years of age) has a gross total income of Rs 4 lakh in which long term capital gain (mutual funds units) of Rs 3 lakh is included. Chapter VI-A deduction is Rs 1.5 lakh.

Here, the gross total income excluding LTCG is Rs 1 lakh (Rs. 4 lakh – Rs 3 lakh). You can adjust the Chapter VI-A deduction from normal income only, not LTCG. Hence. Your normal income will be Nil after claiming Chapter VI-A deductions. Hence, the total income tax liability will be calculated as under.

  • Income after deductions- Nil
  • LTCG – Rs 3 lakh
  • Tax payable normal income – Nil
  • Basic exemption limit – Rs 2.5 lakh
  • Unadjusted amount (d-a) – Rs 2.5 lakh (Rs 2.5 lakh – 0)
  • LTCG after adjusting
    basic exemption limit (b-e)- Rs 50,000(Rs 3 lakh – Rs 2.5 lakh)
  • 20% tax on adjusted LTCG (20% x f) Rs 10,000 (20% on Rs 50,000)
  • Total tax payable (c + g) Rs 10,000 (excluding cess)

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