A long-term capital gain is a profit earned from the sale of any qualifying investment option held by an investor for more than 12 months at the time of asset sale. It is calculated as the difference between the sale and acquisition prices of assets held for more than a year. This profit is thus the net profit that investors make when they sell this asset.
When it comes to qualified investment options, listed equity shares are among those that, if held for a period of 12 months, generate LTCG on shares. In the case of unlisted equity shares, however, the holding time of an asset should be at least 24 to 36 months in order to be deemed a long-term capital asset.
Budget 2022 update
The FM proposes to restrict the surcharge for AOPs having only companies as its members to 15%. IT is applicable to AOPs whose total income during the financial year exceeds Rs 2 crores.
Also, the surcharge on long term capital gains(LTCG) on listed equity shares, units, etc., has been capped at 15%.
Capital gain tax under section 112A will be levied provided the below-mentioned conditions are fulfilled:
To protect the interests of investors, CBDT introduced grandfathering clauses to ensure that the tax is only prospective in nature, and so the tax is levied only on the gains from the date of levy of such tax. For this, the cost of acquisition of the equity or equity-related securities is to be calculated on the basis of a formula covered in section 112A.
Use the below formula for calculating COA:
Long Term Capital Gain = Sales Value – Cost of Acquisition (as per grandfathering rule) – Transfer Expenses
Tax Liability = 10% (LTCG – INR 1 lac)
Let us understand with an example
Mr Udit made a lump-sum investment of Rs. 20 lakh in shares of a listed company in June 2005. Its FMV on January 31, 2018, is Rs. 40 lakh. Udit redeems his entire investment in May 2019 for Rs.43 lakh netting a gain of Rs. 23 lakh. However, due to the grandfathering clause, Udit’s taxable gain would be only Rs. 3 lakh.
Udit had made another one-shot investment of Rs. 15 lakh in shares of another listed company in February 2016. The FMV of the investment on January 31, 2018, was Rs. 4 lakh, and he further sold all these shares in June 2019 for a sum of Rs. 10 lakhs. In this transaction, Rahul incurred a loss of Rs. 5 lakh calculated for tax purposes as per the above-mentioned formula.
|Udit’s Investment Portfolio||Sale price||Cost||FMV on 31st Jan||Value I|
Lower of A and C
Cost of acquisition – Higher of B and D
Capital gain (A- E)
|1||43 Lacs||20 Lacs||40 Lacs||40 Lacs||40 Lacs||3 Lacs|
|2||10 Lacs||15 Lacs||4 Lacs||4 Lacs||15 Lacs||(5 Lacs)|
|TOTAL||53 Lacs||35 Lacs||44 Lacs||44 Lacs||55 Lacs||(2 Lacs)|
LTCG under section 112A at 10% is to be calculated only on the gains in excess of Rs. 1 Lac.
CBDT has clarified in the FAQ section that the amount of Rs.1 Lac is not to be reduced from the total amount of the capital gains as it automatically gets deducted by the software of the tax calculator.
The loss on the sale of long-term listed equity shares or equity-related instruments is a long-term capital loss.
Please note that long term loss on capital gains can be set off only against long-term capital gain. In a situation of an investor has incurred losses from some securities and profits from other securities, then the same can be set off against each other. So only net gains become taxable if they exceed Rs 1 Lakh.
The COA of the investments purchased before 31st Jan 2018 will be the actual cost. However, if the actual cost is less than the FMV as of 31st Jan, then FMV as of 31st Jan will be considered as COA. Further, if the full value of consideration on transfer is less than the fair market value, then such full value of consideration or the actual cost, whichever is higher, will be deemed to be the cost of acquisition.
The FMV will be the highest price of such share or unit quoted on a recognized stock exchange on 31st of January, 2018. However, if there is no trading on 31st Jan 2018, the fair market value will be the highest price quoted on a date immediately preceding 31st of Jan, 2018, on which it has been traded.
In the case of an unlisted unit, the net asset value of such unit on 31st of Jan, 2018 will be the fair market value.
As clarification received from the income tax department, the benefit of inflation indexation of the cost of acquisition will not be available for the purpose of calculating LTCG on equity shares or equity-oriented funds.
TDS provisions are not applicable so far on LTCG on equities.
TDS at the rate of 10% has to be deducted in case of LTCG payment to a non-resident. The capital gains will be required to be computed in accordance with clause 31 of the Finance Bill, 2018.
The cost of acquisition of bonus shares acquired before 31st January, 2018 will be determined as per sub-clause (6) of clause 31 of the Finance Bill, 2018. Therefore, the fair market value of the bonus shares as on 31st January, 2018 will be taken as cost of acquisition (except in some typical situations explained in Ans 7), and hence, the gains accrued upto 31st January, 2018 will continue to be exempt.