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What Is Schedule 112A & Scrip-Wise Reporting Of Capital Gains From Listed Equity Shares And Units?

Updated on: Apr 18th, 2024

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17 min read

Section 112A provides for long-term capital gains(LTCG)  tax on the sale of listed equity shares, equity-oriented mutual funds and business trust. The rate of long-term capital gains tax on these listed securities is 10% for gains exceeding the threshold of Rs 1 lakh. 

The ITR forms contain schedule 112A to fill in scrip-wise details of these listed securities sold during a financial year. A taxpayer having long-term capital gains under the grandfathering provisions of section 112A should mandatorily fill the details in schedule 112A.

Upload details of capital gains in Schedule 112A of the ITR using ClearTax’s e-filing platform within a few minutes in a convenient manner.

Budget 2022 update 
Surcharge on long term capital gains(LTCG) on listed equity shares, units, etc., has been capped at 15%.

Introduction To Section 112A

Section 112A was inserted by the Finance Act 2018 to tax long-term capital gains from the sale of listed equity shares, units of equity-oriented mutual funds and units of business trust. Schedule 112A brought to tax gains which were earlier exempt until FY 2017-18 (AY 2018-19). Earlier, section 10(38) allowed a capital gains exemption from the sale of listed equity shares, units of mutual funds and business trust.

Scope Of Section 112A

The conditions to tax capital gains under section 112A are:

  • The sale should be of listed equity shares, units of a equity-oriented mutual fund and units of a business trust.
  • The securities should be long-term capital assets (Holding period greater than 1 year).
  • The transactions of purchase and sale of equity share are subject to STT (Securities Transaction Tax). In the case of equity-oriented mutual fund units or business trust, the transaction of the sale is liable to STT.
  • Deduction under Chapter VI-A cannot be availed in respect of such gains
  • Rebate under Section 87A cannot be claimed from these gains

Long-term Capital Gains Under Section 112A

The tax under Section 112A is only on long-term capital gains(LTCG). The period of holding should be more than one year to qualify for taxation under section 112A. The tax rate is 10% above a threshold exemption of Rs 1 lakh. This means the long-term capital gains covered under section 112A are not taxable up to Rs 1 lakh per financial year. The gains exceeding Rs 1 lakh are liable to tax at 10% plus education cess and applicable surcharge. 

For example, if a taxpayer has annual (net) long-term capital gain under section 112A of Rs. 1,50,000, then the tax of 10% under section 112A is on Rs. 50,000 (Rs. 1,50,000 – Rs. 1,00,000). 

A resident individual or HUF whose total income after reducing the long-term capital gains is below the basic exemption limit, and then the long-term capital gains stand reduced by such shortfall. 

For example, we consider a taxpayer’s total income is Rs 4,00,000 and (net) long-term capital gains under section 112A is Rs 2,00,000. Here, the balance income after reducing capital gains is Rs 2 lakh which is below the basic exemption limit. 
The amount by which the reduced total income falls short of the basic exemption limit is Rs. 50,000 (Rs 2,50,000 – Rs 2,00,000). The taxable long-term capital gains will be Rs 1,50,000 (Rs 2,00,000 – Rs 50,000).

Set-Off Long-Term Capital Loss From Long-Term Capital Gain

The loss, if any, upon the sale of long-term listed equity shares or units mentioned above is a long-term capital loss. You can set off the loss against long-term capital gain only. In case of losses from a few securities and gains from other securities, you can set-off the losses from the gains. The net gains only get taxed and only if the net gains exceed Rs 1,00,000. 
See the illustration under point no. 5 below. 

You can carry forward the long-term capital loss, which you cannot set off for eight years succeeding the assessment year in which you incur the loss.

Grandfathering Provisions Under Section 112A

The Finance Act 2018 introduced the grandfathering provisions to exempt long-term capital gains earned until 31 January 2018. In the case of specified securities bought before 1 February 2018, for calculating the cost of acquisition, we first take the lower of fair market value as of 31 January 2018 and the sale consideration. Then, we compare the result with the purchase price and take the higher of the two. 

Given below is an example of capital gains calculation under section 112A:  

A

B

C

D

E

F

Sale price

Cost

FMV

Lower of A and C

Cost of acquisition – Higher of B and D

Capital gain

300,000

50,000

150,000

150,000

150,000

150,000

400,000

100,000

200,000

200,000

200,000

200,000

300,000

75,000

150,000

150,000

150,000

150,000

100,000

120,000

150,000

100,000

120,000

(20,000)

100,000

150,000

180,000

100,000

150,000

(50,000)

100,000

170,000

160,000

100,000

170,000

(70,000)

13,00,000

6,65,000

9,90,000

8,00,000

9,40,000

3,60,000

In the given illustration, a taxpayer can set off losses from the gains and arrive at the long-term capital gain taxable using the grandfathering mechanism is Rs 3,60,000. The taxpayer needs to pay tax only on the gains exceeding Rs 1,00,000, which is Rs 2,60,000.

Fair Market Value:

  • The FMV of listed securities is the highest price of the security quoted on the recognised stock exchange.
  • In case there was no trading in the security on 31 January 2018, the FMV is the highest price of the security quoted on a date immediately preceding 31 January 2018 when the security had traded on the recognised stock exchange.
  • In the case of unlisted units as on 31 January 2018, the net asset value of the units as on 31 January 2018.
  • In the case of equity share which was listed after 31 January 2018 or acquired under a merger or other transfer under section 47, the FMV will be: Purchase cost *Cost inflation index for FY 2017-18 / Cost inflation index of the year of the purchase or FY 2001-02.

Reporting under Schedule 112A of the ITR

The income tax returns for AY 2024-25 contain Schedule 112A to enable scrip-wise reporting of long-term capital gains where grandfathering provisions are applicable. Schedule 112A requires data such as ISIN code, name of the scrip, number of units or shares sold, sale price, purchase cost and FMV as on 31 January 2018. The details are necessary to arrive at the correct amount of long-term capital gains where the grandfathering provisions are applicable. 

In Schedule 112A, as below, data w.r.t long-term capital gains needs to be disclosed in your ITR. However scrip wise disclosure is required only in case of shares or mutual funds bought before 31st Jan 2018 and sold in the current assessment year. Scrip-wise details are not required if shares or mutual funds were bought after 31st Jan 2018 and sold in the current assessment year.

Schedule 112A shown in ITR

ClearTax’s e-filing platform enables you to directly upload your stock statements from broking agencies such as ZerodhaKarvyCAMS and others. You can quickly fill in the data in Schedule 112A while filing your ITR.

For a better understanding, read more related articles:

Frequently Asked Questions

What do I fill out in Schedule 112A?

If you have any long-term capital gains from the sale of listed equity shares or equity-oriented mutual funds, then you will have to disclose such details in Schedule 112A of your Income tax return. This schedule has scrip-wise details of all the stocks and mutual funds which are sold in the long-term.

How do you calculate capital gains on listed shares?

In the case of listed equity shares, the capital gain is computed in the manner below. 

Sale value - Cost of acquisition = Capital gain

If you have held listed equity shares or mutual fund (Equity) for more than 1 year on which STT is paid, Then it is considered a long-term capital gain, and such details need to be declared in Schedule 112A.

Can I file ITR 2 if I have capital gains?

Yes. If you have capital gains, then you will have to file ITR-2. Also, if you have business income with a capital gain, then you will have to file ITR-3.

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Quick Summary

Section 112A imposes a 10% LTCG tax on listed equity transactions exceeding Rs 1 lakh with compliance through Schedule 112A in ITR forms. It includes rules, scope, tax rates, set-off regulations, and grandfathering provisions where gains were initiated pre-Feb 2018.

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