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What is Net Profit? – Importance, Formula and Example

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The Net Profit of a company is the amount of money a business earns after deducting interest, operating expenses, and tax over a defined period. Net Profit is also called Profit After Tax (PAT).

Net Profit determines the financial health of the business. It shows if a company makes more money than it spends. When investors want to invest in a business, they check the company’s Net Profit.

How to calculate the Net Profit of a company?

To calculate Net Profit, one must include all company’s financial transactions.

Net profit = Revenue/Sales + Income from other sources – Cost of Goods Sold – Operating Expenses – Other Expenses – Interest – Depreciation – Taxes.

The cost of goods sold includes expenses on labour, raw materials, etc. Operating expenses include fixed costs such as rent, advertising expenses, employee salaries, and insurance costs.

Interest costs are the interest payments the company makes on loans availed. Depreciation is the reduction in the value of the asset over time. Taxes include corporate tax and so on.

Let’s look at XYZ Ltd.’s Income Statement as of 30th March 2018.

 Particulars Amount (Rs) Total Revenue Rs 20,00,000 Cost of Goods Sold (5,00,000) Gross Profit Rs 15,00,000 Operating Expenses Rent Rs 50,000 Utilities Rs 30,000 Depreciation Rs 20,000 Total Operating Expenses Rs 1,00,000 Interest Rs 30,000 Taxes Rs 30,000 Net Profit Rs 13,40,000

Net Profit = Gross Profit – Expenses

Net Profit = Rs 15,00,000 – Rs 1,00,000 – 30,000 -30,000 = Rs 13,40,000.

What is the importance of Net Profit?

Net Profit shows the success of a business. For instance, no matter how much sales a business makes, the Net Profit is what indicates if the company is making money. Net Profit shows business owners how much money is available to invest in the business.

Banks and lenders look at the Net Profit and decide if they should sanction loans to the company. For example, companies with a higher Net Profit are likely to have strong cash flows and can quickly service interest costs and repay the loans.

The business owners use Net Profit to compare the business’s profitability across different accounting periods. Net Profit can also be used to compare the performance of companies within the same industry.

What is the Net Profit Margin?

Net Profit Margin measures the amount of Net Profit generated by a company per rupee of revenue gained.

Net Profit Margin = Profit After Tax (PAT) / Net Sales

The dues of the shareholders of a business are settled after paying all other stakeholders, which include the government. Hence, shareholders want to know the Net Profit Margin of the company.

Companies with higher Net Profit Margins are more efficient in handling costs and earning profits.

Let’s understand Net Profit Margin with an example. Company ABC has a Net Profit of Rs 80 crore and Net Sales of Rs 225 crore. Consequently, Company XYZ has a Net Profit of Rs 30 crore and Net Sales of Rs 100 crore.

Company ABC Income Statement

 Particulars Amount (Rs in Crore) Total Revenue 225 Cost of Goods Sold 35 Gross Profit 190 Operating Expenses 40 Operating Profit 150 Interest Expenses 10 Profit Before Tax 140 Tax Expense 60 Net Profit 80

Company XYZ Income Statement

 Particulars Amount (Rs in Crore) Total Revenue 100 Cost of Goods Sold 20 Gross Profit 80 Operating Expenses 20 Operating Profit 60 Interest Expenses 5 Profit Before Tax 55 Tax Expense 25 Net Profit 30

Using the formula one can calculate the net profit margin of Company ABC as 35.55% and Company XYZ as 30%.

Net profit margin (Company ABC) = Net Profit / Net Sales or 80 / 225 = 35.55%

Net profit margin (Company XYZ) = Net Profit / Net Sales or 30 / 100 = 30%

Hence, Company ABC has a higher net profit margin than Company XYZ.

What is the importance of the Net Profit Margin?

Net Profit Margin shows business owners how much money their company is making. It reveals to business owners how their firm is spending money and helps them optimise profits.

The Net Profit Margin is different from the Gross Profit Margin. While Net Profit Margin shows the profit accruing from sales, Gross Profit Margin shows company profits on the cost of sales.

For example, Gross Profit Margin shows how various costs such as labour, supplies, and production impact the business’s profitability.

Conclusion:

• The Net Profit Margin displays the ability of a business to make profits.
• Companies with high Net Profit Margins can control expenses and have strong pricing power and efficient management.

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