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Understanding the Payment Process under GST

Updated on :  

08 min read.

Every registered regular taxpayer under GST is required to compute his tax liability on a monthly basis by setting off the Input Tax Credit(ITC) against the Outward Tax Liability. 

Exceptions are a composition taxable person who pays tax through form CMP-08 once in a quarter and a regular taxpayer opting into the Quarterly Return filing and Monthly Payment of tax (QRMP) scheme who can choose between fixed sum and self -assessment method of tax computation.

If there is any balance tax payable after the ITC offset, then the same is required to be paid to the government. There are three ledgers prescribed by the government that are required to be maintained by every tax payer.

Electronic Liability Ledger 

The electronic liability ledger shows the total tax liability of a registered person at any point of time. This detail can be accessed on the GST portal of a registered taxpayer.

ParticularsSerial Number for reference
Amount of tax payableA
Interest and late feeB
Amount of tax payable along with interest on account of mismatch of credit based on provisions of Section 29 or Section 29A or Section 43CC
Any other amount payable by the taxpayer or directed by the Board on account of any proceedings carried outD
Tax under reverse chargeG
Amount payable by department against any interest, refund, alte fee or any other amount determined under the proceedings under this ActH
Balance in the Electronic Tax Liability Ledger= A+B+C+D-E-F-G-H

 Electronic Cash Ledger 

An Electronic cash ledger will also be maintained on the GST portal. It will display the total amount deposited by the taxpayer towards discharge of his tax liability or interest or late fee or penalty any other amounts. Also, it is now mandatory for businesses making payment for more than Rs 10,000 to do it electronically.  To know more on how to GST check our Guide on GST Payment in form PMT-06.

Form PMT-09 enables a registered person under GST to transfer any amount of tax, interest, penalty, etc that is available in the electronic cash ledger, to the relevant tax or cess head such as IGST, CGST and SGST in the electronic cash ledger.

Electronic credit ledger 

All the taxes paid on the inputs would be recorded in the electronic credit ledger. The input tax credit in each of the cases mentioned below, shall also be transferred to the electronic credit ledger: 

  • ITC available to the branch for the amount of credit transferred by ISD
  • ITC allowed on input held in stock and the semi-finished or finished goods would be credited to the electronic credit ledger if the taxpayer applied for registration within 30 days of becoming liable to pay tax.
  • ITC available on the input held in stock and semi-finished or finished goods by a taxpayer in the composition scheme converting to a normal taxpayer shall be transferred to electronic credit ledger.
  • ITC available due to the taxes paid under the reverse charge mechanism shall also be transferred to the electronic credit ledger.
  • ITC available on goods/services used for the business and other purposes shall only be allowed to the extent applicable for business purposes.

All the payments under GST have to be made by either using the input tax credit available in the electronic credit ledger or through the electronic cash ledger.

How are tax payments made?

  • Regular Tax: Payment can be made by either utilising ITC or by making payment in cash
  • Interest and penalties: Payment can be made only in cash and ITC adjustment is not allowed.

Utilising ITC for the fulfillment of Tax liability

  • IGST: After the IGST input tax credit is used for payment of IGST then the remaining ITC can be used to pay tax liability under CGST and SGST. 
  • CGST: The CGST input tax credit cannot be used to pay the SGST liability but can be used to pay the liability under CGST. Further, the balance of CGST credit available can be used to pay the IGST liability. 
  • SGST: The SGST input tax credit cannot be used to pay the CGST liability but can be used to pay the liability under SGST. Further, the balance of SGST credit available can be used to pay the IGST liability. 

For better understanding, read a host of articles on ClearTax:

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