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A Debt mutual fund is a fund which mainly invests in debt instruments or fixed income securities such as Treasury Bills, Corporate Bonds, Money Market instruments and other debt securities of varying time horizons.
Debt fund securities have a fixed maturity date and pay a fixed rate of interest. So, debt funds can be relied upon to give a minimum rate of interest over a time period. Also, they rank very low on the riskometer. This secure nature of debt funds makes them an interesting component of a smart investor’s portfolio.
We often hear the above two terms when we are talking about debt funds. In fact, they are used interchangeably by novice investors. Both words may seem alike but have varied meanings in a financial context. In English, duration stands for the length of time, and maturity means the extent to which something is fully grown.
Maturity of a debt instrument is the length of time until the principal is supposed to be paid back. So, a 5-year bond or debt instrument earns interest for five years from the date it is purchased. Here, the maturity is 5 years. At the end of 5 years, the bond principal is repaid back to the owner and the interest payments cease.
According to the investor, maturity is commonly referred as the time between now and when the bond matures.The maturity date for a debt instrument is usually set at issue and doesn’t change. However, the maturity of a debt instrument gets shorter as the instrument’s life as one moves closer to that maturity date.
Duration is relatively a more abstract and confusing concept employed to ascertain the sensitivity of the interest rate. This implies it measures the value of the principal, for a fixed income investment to a change in interest rates.
Investors in the bond market often pay attention to fluctuations in interest rates since these movements have opposite effects on bond prices. An increase in interest rates lowers the value of a debt instrument and vice-versa. Duration is expressed usually in terms of the number of years.
Duration, when used as an indicator, depends upon other metrics including present value, yield, coupon, final maturity and call features. Speaking simply, the bigger the duration, the greater the interest-rate risk or reward for bond prices.
For investors, the concept of duration enables them to compare bonds and debt oriented funds with a number of coupon rates and maturity dates. Since duration is measured in years, if a debt oriented security instrument has a higher duration, it means that investors would need to wait a longer period to receive the coupon payments and principal invested.
The higher is the value of duration, the more is the likelihood that the security’s price would fall if the interest rate rises. The reverse is also true.
For example, Ron is in the process of selecting debt funds for his portfolio. His initial research makes him believe that interest rates will rise over the next three years and may consider selling the bond funds prior to the maturity date. So he will need to consider the duration at the time of investing and he might wish to invest for a shorter duration.
Suppose Ron wishes to purchase a 15-year bond that yields 6% for Rs. 1,000 or a 10-year bond that yields 3% for Rs. 1,000. If the 15-year security is held to maturity, Ron would receive Rs. 60 each year and would receive the Rs. 1,000 principal after 15 years. Conversely, if the 10-year bond is held until maturity, Ron would receive Rs. 30 per year and would receive the Rs. 1,000 principal invested.
Therefore, Ron would want to consider 10-year bond because the bond would only lose 7%, or (-10% + 3%), if interest rates rise by 1%. However, the 15-year bond would lose 9%, or (-15% + 6%), if rates rose by 1%. However, if interest rates get reduced by 1%, the 15-year security would rise more than the 10-year bond. To know more about debt funds see also – Debt Funds: Types, Benefits and More
As a tax-paying citizen, the Section-80c of the Indian Tax Act allows you some breather –
a deduction of up to 150,000 from your total annual income.
A debt fund is a mutual fund that puts money in fixed income instruments such as government and corporate bonds, treasury bills, commercial paper, certificates of deposit and so on. SEBI has categorised and rationalised debt funds into 16 categories. It categorises debt funds depending on where they invest the corpus.
You may invest in direct plans of debt fund schemes through the asset management company. You could invest in regular plans of debt fund schemes with the help of a mutual fund distributor. You may consider investing in debt funds through an online platform such as cleartax invest.
Short term debt funds invest in bonds with a maturity period of one to three years. It is suitable for low-risk investors with a similar investment horizon. It is a tax-efficient investment as compared to fixed deposits for investors in the higher tax brackets.
Debt funds are facing redemption pressure. The secondary market for bonds and money market instruments is shallow in India. As trading volumes dwindle, selling pressure pushes up the traded yield levels. It leads to a fall in prices and debt funds give negative returns.
RBI has been cutting the repo rate in recent times. A falling interest rate regime results in a lower return from short-term debt funds. However, long-term debt funds perform well in a falling interest rate regime.
Debt funds generate returns by putting money in bonds and fixed-income securities. Debt funds would purchase these securities and earn an interest income. The yields you and other investors receive from debt funds is based on the interest income.
Debt funds invest in different types of bonds whose prices rise and fall depending on interest rates in the economy. If a debt mutual fund purchases a bond and its price rises due to a fall in the interest rates, it would make additional money over and above the interest income.
You must persify your portfolio with debt funds to protect it from the volatility of the stock market. You must always include debt funds in your portfolio irrespective of your age and how the interest rates move in the economy.
You may invest in debt funds based on your investment objectives and risk tolerance. You may start investing in debt funds as early as possible and stay invested for a long-term to earn a maximum return.
You may invest in direct plans of debt funds online by visiting the website of the mutual fund house. You may fill up the application form and complete your eKYC by submitting your PAN and Aadhaar details.
The AMC would verify your details and you may send money through your online bank account. You may invest in direct mutual funds online in India through the online portals such as cleartax invest.
You may choose the best debt funds based on the track record of the mutual fund house. Check the investment style of the fund manager before putting money in debt fundsInvest in a mutual fund house with large assets under management (AUM).
It may be able to bear sudden redemption pressure during an economic crisisCheck the credit quality of the portfolio of the debt fund. You may consider investing in debt funds with AAA-rated bonds in the portfolioYou may invest in debt funds based on your investment horizonYou could consider your risk appetite before investing in debt funds. Debt funds especially long-term debt funds are vulnerable to interest rate risk
Debt funds are giving negative returns due to fluctuations in interest rates. Debt funds of longer maturity are vulnerable to interest rate risk.
Ultra-short debt funds are open-ended debt mutual fund schemes. It invests in bonds with a Macaulay duration of three to six months
You may invest in direct plans of short-term debt funds directly with the mutual fund house. You can invest in regular plans of short term debt funds through a mutual fund distributor. You may also invest in short term debt funds through an online platform such as cleartax invest.
You must log on to cleartax invesr You then select the mutual fund house from the list of fund house Select the short term debt funds from under the category debt funds, based on your investment objectives and risk tolerance and click on Invest no You must select the amount you plan to invest in the short term debt fund scheme and the mode as either One Time or Monthly SIP
You will have to pay capital gains tax on debt funds depending on your holding period. If you invest in debt funds for a time period under three years and then sell your holdings, your capital gains are called short term capital gains (STCG). The short term capital gains are added to your taxable income and taxed as per your income tax bracket.
If you invest in debt funds for three or more years and then sell your holdings, your capital gains are called long term capital gains (LTCG). The long term capital gains are taxed at 20% with indexation and applicable cess.
Accrual debt funds follow an accrual-based strategy. It is a type of debt fund that puts money in short to medium maturity paper. It focuses on holding securities until maturity.
Modified duration shows you the price sensitivity of a bond whenever there is a change in interest rates. It follows a simple concept that bond prices and interest rates move in opposite directions.
Modified duration gives you the price sensitivity of a bond to change in yield to maturity. You may calculate the modified duration by piding the Macaulay Duration of a bond by a factor of (1+y/m).
‘y’ stands for the annual yield to maturity and ‘m’ stands for the number of coupon payments per period.
If you invest in debt funds for three years or more and then sell your holdings, your gains are called long term capital gains. Your long term capital gains in debt funds are taxed at 20% with the indexation benefit.
Indexation helps you adjust the purchase price of debt funds for inflation. You may use CII or the Cost of Inflation Index to index the acquisition cost of the units of debt mutual funds.
For example, if you purchased 1,000 units of a debt fund in FY 2013-14 at an NAV of Rs 15. You sold the 1,000 units of the debt fund at an NAV of Rs 22 in FY 2018-19. As you have held the debt fund units for more than three years, your gains of Rs 7,000 (Rs 22- Rs 15) * 1000 are called long term capital gains.
You have CII for FY 2013-14 as 220. (CII for the year of purchase)
You have CII for FY 2018-19 as 280. (CII for the year of sale)
ICoA = Original cost of acquisition of debt funds* (CII of the year of sale/CII of year of purchase) where ICoA is the indexed cost of acquisition.
ICoA = 15000 * (280/220) = 19,091.
Hence, instead of Rs 7,000, your capital gains will now be Rs 2,909, i.e. (Rs 22,000 – Rs 19,091).
You have to pay long term capital gains tax of 20% on Rs 2,909 which works out to Rs 582.
Debt mutual funds put money in fixed income instruments such as government and corporate bonds, treasury bills, commercial paper, certificates of deposit and other money market instruments.
Indexation helps you adjust the purchase price of debt funds to account for inflation. You can understand the calculation of indexation in debt funds with this example.
Suppose you invested Rs one lakh in debt mutual funds in FY 2015-16. You redeemed your investment in FY 2019-20 for Rs 1,50,000 after more than three years. Your capital gains are Rs 50,000.
You have CII for FY 2015-16 as 254. (CII for the year of purchase)
You have CII for FY 2019-20 as 289. (CII for the year of sale)
You have the Inflation Adjusted Purchase Price of debt funds = Actual Purchase Price of debt fund X (CII in the year of sale/CII in the year of purchase)
= 1,00,000 * (289/254) = 1,13,780.
Capital gains after indexation = Rs 1,50,000 – Rs 1,13,780 = Rs 36,220.
You have to pay LTCG tax at 20% on Rs 36,220 instead of Rs 50,000 (Rs 1,50,000 – Rs 1,00,000)
You pay long term capital gains tax of Rs 7,244 which is 20% of Rs 36,220 on your LTCG on debt funds.
SEBI has categorised debt funds into sixteen categories. You have overnight funds, liquid funds, ultra-short duration funds, low duration funds, money market funds, short-duration funds, medium duration funds, medium to long-duration funds, long-duration fund, dynamic funds, corporate bond funds, credit risk funds, banking and PSU funds, gilt funds, gilt funds with 10-year constant duration and floater funds.
You may select the best debt fund based on your investment objectives and risk tolerance. Take a look at the portfolio of the debt fund. You may opt for debt funds with AAA-rated bonds in the portfolio. It is safer as compared to lower-rated bonds.
Pick a debt fund with a lower expense ratio. Take a look at the track record of the mutual fund house and the fund manager before picking the best debt funds.
Debt funds put money in fixed income securities. It is safer as compared to equity funds which invest in stocks and are subject to the volatility of the stock markets. You may persify your portfolio with debt funds.
The safety of debt funds depends on the type of debt funds and the interest rate fluctuations. Long-term debt funds may give negative returns when interest rates are rising. Short-term debt funds offer a lower return when interest rates fall. Credit risk funds invest your money in bonds of a lower rating. You may lose money if the bond-issuer defaults on principal and interest repayments.
Debt funds are a type of mutual fund that puts money in fixed income securities. Liquid funds are a subset of debt funds. It invests in fixed-income instruments with a maturity period of up to 91 days. However, other debt funds may have a longer maturity profile.
Risk: Liquid funds have the lowest risk as compared to other debt funds. It has minimum credit risk and interest rate risk as compared to other debt funds.
Liquidity: Liquid funds have high liquidity and you can easily redeem them at the AMC as compared to other debt funds.
The main difference between equity funds and debt funds is where they put your money. Equity funds invest mainly in equity shares and related securities of companies while debt funds put money in fixed income instruments.
You may choose between equity and debt funds depending on your investment objectives and risk tolerance. You may invest in equity funds to achieve your long-term financial goals.
Equity funds would perform well over the long-run say over five years. Debt funds are suitable for short-term financial goals of one to three years.
Equity funds put money predominantly in equity shares of companies. Debt funds invest mainly in fixed income securities.
You may choose equity or debt funds depending on your investment objectives and risk appetite. Equity funds would perform well over the long-term and are suitable for long-term financial goals such as buying a house or retirement planning. Debt funds are a safe investment and suitable for short-term financial goals such as saving for a vacation.
You could persify your portfolio with debt funds to protect it from the volatility of the stock market. You may invest in debt funds to achieve short-term financial goals. Debt funds invest in fixed income securities and are less risky as compared to equity funds.
Debt mutual funds invest in a portfolio of bonds of different credit ratings depending on the type of debt fund. Credit risk is the possibility of a bond-issuer defaulting on principal and interest payments on the bond.
However, credit risk funds put money in bonds of a lower rating. It is vulnerable to credit risk as the chance of default is higher for lower-rated paper, when compared to debt funds that invest in AAA-rated bonds.
Debt funds are tax-efficient as compared to fixed deposits. The interest from bank fixed deposits are added to your taxable income and taxed as per your income tax bracket.
The capital gains after holding debt funds for a time period under three years are called short-term capital gains (STCG). The STCG is added to your taxable income and taxed as per your income tax slab.
However, if you hold debt funds for three years or more, your capital gains are called long-term capital gains (LTCG). You would find LTCG taxed at 20% with the benefit of indexation. It makes it tax-efficient as compared to bank fixed deposits.
Debt funds are tax-efficient as compared to bank FDs if you fall in the higher income tax bracket and have an investment horizon above three years.
You aim to earn a regular interest income from debt funds and hold the paper until it matures under the accrual strategy in debt funds. Fund managers follow the accrual strategy in fixed income instruments of short or medium-term maturity. It is mainly a buy and hold strategy where instruments in the portfolio are held until maturity.
Accrual funds are debt mutual funds which aim to earn interest income mainly from the coupon offered by securities they hold in the portfolio. However, accrual funds may obtain some return from capital gains as a small portion of the total return.
Short term capital gain on debt funds to be reported in below mentioned places: