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The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India’s central bank, also known as the banker’s bank.
The RBI controls the monetary and other banking policies of the Indian government. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was established on April 1, 1935, in accordance with the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934. The Reserve Bank is permanently situated in Mumbai since 1937.
The Reserve Bank is fully owned and operated by the Government of India.
The Preamble of the Reserve Bank of India describes the basic functions of the Reserve Bank as:
The Reserve Bank’s operations are governed by a central board of directors, RBI is on the whole operated with a 21-member central board of directors appointed by the Government of India in accordance with the Reserve Bank of India Act.
The Central board of directors comprise of:
The primary objectives of RBI are to supervise and undertake initiatives for the financial sector consisting of commercial banks, financial institutions and non-banking financial companies (NBFCs).
Some key initiatives are:
The Reserve Bank of India comes under the purview of the following Acts:
Regulatory and Supervisory
Foreign Exchange Management
Annual Report – The annual report is a statutory report of the Reserve Bank of India that is released every year. This report consists of valuation and progress of the Indian economy. Overview of the economy, the working of the Reserve Bank during that year and the RBI’s projected vision and agenda for the following year along with the annual accounts of the Reserve Bank
Report on Trend and Progress of Banking in India – This document is an assessment of the policies and progress of the financial sector for the preceding year.
Lectures – The Reserve Bank of India has constituted three annual lectures. Two of these lectures are conducted by past Governors of the Reserve Bank and one lecture is by a noted economist.
Report on Currency and Finance – This report is documented and presented by the staff of Reserve Bank of India bank and focusses on a particular theme and presents a detailed economic analysis of the issues related to the theme.
Handbook of Statistics on the Indian Economy – This report is an important initiative by the Reserve Bank to improve data distribution. It is a resourceful storehouse of major statistical information.
State Finances: A Study of Budgets – The report is an essential source of segregated state-wise financial data and provides an analytical data-driven conceptualisation on the fiscal position of state governments across India. These data inputs are used to analyse specific issues of relevance.
Statistical Tables Relating to Banks in India – This annual publication contains holistic timeline data with regards to the Scheduled Commercial Banks (SCBs) of India. The report also covers the information of balance sheets and performance indicators for each SCB in India. The journal also includes segregated data sources on some essential factors relating to bank-wise, bank group-wise and state-wise level of information.
Basic Statistical Returns – This is another data-focused yearly journal which represents complex information on the number of offices, employees, deposits and credit of Scheduled Commercial Banks in minute levels of detail such as, region-wise, state-wise and district-wise information. This information also trickles down to the population and credit requirements in each bank.
Repo or repurchase rate is the benchmark interest rate at which the RBI lends money to all other banks for a short-term. When the repo rate increases, borrowing from RBI becomes more expensive and hence customers or the public bear the outcome of high-interest rates.
Reverse Repo Rate (RRR)
Reverse Repo rate is the short-term borrowing rate at which RBI borrows money from other banks. The Reserve Bank of India uses this method to reduce inflation when there is excess money in the banking system.
Cash Reserve Ratio (CRR)
Cash Reserve Ratio is the particular share of any bank’s total deposit that is mandatory and to be maintained with the Reserve Bank of India in the form of liquid cash.
Statutory liquidity ratio (SLR)
Leaving aside the cash reserve ratio, banks are required to maintain liquid assets in the form of gold and approved securities. A higher SLR disables the banks to grant more loans.
The initiatives taken by the Reserve Bank in the domain of electronic payment systems are immense and vast. The types of electronic forms of payment by the RBI are as follows:
To know the latest news from The Reserve Bank of India read circulars and notifications